28 March 2009

Zoo Birds

While Dana, Tony, Justin, and I worked in the herbarium at the Missouri Botanical Garden a few weeks ago, Lindsay spent a day with her friend Jenny and Jenny's daughter Allison at the St. Louis Zoo. Lindsay captured some pretty nice photos, so I wanted to share some information on some of the birds she saw.

Savannas in Sub-Saharan Africa are the natural haunts of the Bateleur Eagle (Terathopius ecaudatus). The genus name Terathopius means "marvelous face," which you can see in the photograph above. The specific epithet means "without tail," a reference to the very short tail on this medium-sized eagle. Bateleur eagles are aerial acrobats that characteristically tip their wings back and forth when they are flying, reminiscent of a tightrope act; in fact, "Bateleur" is French for "tightrope walker." These snake eagles mate for life, staying in the same nest for many years, and the female lays just a single egg. Only ~2% of chicks survive to become adults, which takes 7 or 8 years. Bateleur Eagles feed mostly on birds, but also will eat snakes, some mammals, and carrion.

The Blue Crane (Anthropoides paradisea) is endemic to southern Africa; greater than 99% of the populations of this species occur in South Africa, with a small population also occurring in neighboring Namibia, and breeding pairs found in 5 other countries on occasion. Unfortunately, this critically endangered species is in decline as a result of population growth, afforestation, and poisoning, both intentional to protect crops and unintentional as a result of pesticide application. The National Bird of South Africa, Blue Cranes are ~4 feet tall and can be found feeding on insects, small vertibrates, and plant seeds in dry grasslands.

Puffins are a group of pelagic seabirds that Lindsay and I have never seen in the wild. One of the four living species in the genus Fratercula, Latin for "little brother" (so named as a reference to the black and white plumage which resembles monastic robes), is the Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) (cirrhata is Latin for "tufted"). Tufted Puffins can be found throughout the North Pacific Ocean feeding on fish, squid, crustaceans, mollusks, and other invertebrates. One of the first things you'll notice in looking at this bird is the huge bill, which is used by adult Tufted Puffins to store prey as they bring a meal back to their young (they've been known to carry up to 60 fish at one time!). Adults of this species also likely mate for life, and the female produces just a single egg.

Get a load of that prehistoric-looking thing! This is a Great Hornbill (Buceros bicornis), a species found in India, the Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia, known to live for up to 50 years! The "horn" on the top of the bill, known as a "casque," is a sign of sexual maturity in this species; it begins to form on juveniles that are 6 months old, but takes 5 years to fully form. The casque acts as a resonating chamber to amplify the nasal sounds produced by this unique forest bird. Great Hornbills feed mostly on fruit, but can also be seen eating small mammals, birds, snakes, lizards, and large insects. Another species that mates for life, Great Hornbills produce one or two eggs per clutch (though usually only one chick hatches) in hollowed out trees. Once the eggs are produced, the male leaves the female and eggs in the hollow tree, and the two nearly completely enclose the female and eggs in the tree using feces and food. The female then spends the next four months in the tree with the eggs, until the chick has hatched and is nearly ready to leave the nest. The male hornbill feeds the female through a small slit in the enclosed cavity during this time. About a week before the chick is ready to leave the nest, the female breaks through the enclosure to help the male find food, and the chick immediately rebuilds the barrier to protect it from predators! Unfortunately, populations of this amazing species are also in decline.

There are 16 living species of macaws in the world. The largest of those is the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchos hyacinthinus), a species native to central and eastern South America that lives in palm swamps, woodlands, and other semi-open wooded areas, avoiding heavily forested areas. Hyacinth Macaws feed on various nuts, seeds, and fruits; they particularly pine and palm nuts. Like the Scarlet Macaws that Lindsay posted about here, Hyacinth Macaws mate for life. Nesting occurs in existing holes in trees, where the female produces one or two eggs. If two eggs are produced, only one hatchling will survive, as the second born and smaller fledgling is not able to compete with the larger fledgling for food. Hyacinth Macaws are considered a threatened species, a result of their popularity in the pet trade as well as loss of appropriate habitat. Their numbers have seen a 50% reduction in the past 10 years or 3 generations, and another 50% reduction is expected in the next 10 years or 3 generations. These gorgeous birds are definitely in danger of becoming extinct.

The Spectacled Owl (Pulsatrix perspicillata) ranges from southern Mexico through Central America and the northern 2/3 of South America, where it can be found in mature tropical rainforests, dry forests, treed savannas, plantations, and open areas with scattered trees. Like many other owls, this is a nocturnal species. Spectacled Owls feed on mammals, crabs, frogs, and large insects; they will even eat birds and other owls. Females produce 1 or 2 eggs, but generally only one fledgling survives. The young bird depends on its parents for about a year after fledging.

The White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) is an approximately 4 foot tall wading bird found in parts of Europe, northwest Africa, and southwest Asia. They migrate and winter in tropical Africa to South Africa, as well as in India. White Storks breed in open farmland with access to marshes; nesting occurs in trees, on buildings, or on nesting platforms. They feed on frogs, large insects, small birds, lizards, and rodents.

And then, there are the penguins. Seventeen species of penguins exist worldwide; unforturnately, populations of most of these are declining. Lindsay watched a program on PBS last week about this goofy group of birds. From the program, Lindsay learned that penguins can survive and breed in areas that are often too cold for plant life. They usually are found in large colonies. Penguins can't fly, and are very clumsy on land, but they are agile divers and swimmers, using their wings as flippers. Their biggest enemy, aside from global climate change, seems to be seals and sea lions.

Did you know there were penguins in Africa? I certainly didn't. The African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is found naturally on islands along the southwestern coast of Africa, as well as in a few mainland locations in Africa; this is the only species of penguin that breeds in Africa. Another monogomous bird species, the male and female take turns incubating and feeding their young. African Penguins feed on fish, small crustaceans, and squid. Unfortunately, African Penguins were nearly driven to extinction as a result of harvesting of eggs and guano (they nest in excavations within sun-hardened guano), feral cats, and oil pollution; less than 10% of the orignal populations remain. As stated above, they are excellent swimmers, reaching top speeds of approximately 12.5 mph and staying under water for up to 2 minutes.

Gentoo Penguins (Pygoscelis papua) are found on Antarctica and on sub-Antarctic islands, giving them the greatest distribution of any penguin species. They feed mostly on crustaceans, but will also eat fish and squid. Their nests often consist of a pile of stones, but sometimes consist of grasses and other vegetation. Females typically produce 2 eggs, and the parents take turns incubating the eggs. Both hatchlings usually develop; however, if food is scarce, the parents will feed only the stronger hatchling, letting the weaker starve to death.

You should recognize the penguin in the foreground as a Gentoo Penguin; the two in the background are King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Becoming as large as 3 feet tall, the King Penguin ranks second in size of penguins only the the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). King Penguins, which breed on sub-Antarctic islands, feed mostly on fish and squid. They have four layers of feathers, the outer of which is oily and waterproof; the three inner layers are down feathers. Chicks do not have the outer layer of feathers when born, so they cannot fish until they reach maturity. Adults can dive to depths of 1000 feet and can stay submerged for up to 15 minutes, swimming at speeds of up to 6 mph. As in the other species of penguins discussed above, the male and female alternate incubating and foraging activities. The population numbers of this majestic species are actually increasing.

Rockhopper Penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) were given their common name as a result of the way that they hop from rock to rock in their sub-Antarctic habitat. While this species is smaller than most other penguins, Rockhopper Penguins seem to have a Napoleon complex and are very aggressive. Rockhoppers feed primarily on fish, crustaceans, and squid. Females produce two eggs, but the first is often lost or does not hatch; if it does hatch, the hatchling often does not survive. As in the other species of penguins, the parents take turns incubating and foraging/feeding.

Although all of these species were observed in a zoo setting, it is still interesting to learn about the diversity that exists throughout the avian world. It would be amazing to see these species in their natural settings, but for many of us, seeing them in captivity will probably be the best chance we get. I hope you found this post as interesting to read as I found it to write.

24 March 2009

A Trip to Kaintuck Hollow

On our recent trip to Missouri, we spent the better part of a beautiful spring day at Kaintuck Hollow in Mark Twain National Forest. Below are a few photos of the fauna we saw... I could use a little help identifying a couple of these.

As soon as we got out of the car, I heard rustling of leaves and found a Blanchard's Cricket Frog (Acris crepitans v. blanchardi). In northern Indiana, cricket frogs have become pretty uncommon in the past quarter of a century; as you go farther south in the state, their metallic "gick-gick-gick" calls frequent the spring and summer air. The couple of times I have seen these inch-long frogs in the past, they have had an obvious green stripe down the center of their backs, like the one shown in my post here. Cricket frogs often have this colored stripe; sometimes it is red, yellow, or brown, but sometimes it is absent. You'll notice the warty texture to the skin, another helpful identification character. The feature to look for to obtain a positive ID, however, is the dark triangle between the eyes on the top of the head.

It wasn't long before I noticed another hop and commotion in the leaf litter, but this time the culprit was a russet-colored grasshopper. What a beautiful and well camouflaged creature! Thanks to Ted MacRae of Beetles in the Bush for identifying this as a Mischievous Bird Grasshopper (Schistocerca damnifica).

A bit later, while we were botanizing in an oak-hickory woodland, I saw movement out of the corner of my eye. After flipping over a few leaves, I found this approximately 1 inch long beetle. Thanks again to Ted MacRae for identifying this as a Ground Beetle (Carabus sylvosus).

Finally, we were lucky enough to see one of the Show-Me State's most unique mammals, the Missouri endemic Ozark Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys thomasii). This species bears little resemblance to the Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) or Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans), and in fact, unlike its relatives, is diurnal. Like its relatives, the Ozark Flying Squirrel shows an affinity towards lichens, acorns, and flowers.

21 March 2009

Missouri Botanical Garden Trip

Wow... I have some serious catching up to do! Last week, on Tuesday night, Lindsay and I, along with Tony Troche, drove to St. Louis to visit the Missouri Botanical Garden. Tony and I were going to the Garden to visit the herbarium in the Monsanto and Lehman buildings. We met up with Justin and Dana Thomas and their son Eli early on Wedensday morning, and spent the next three days scouring through specimens in the herbarium. Lindsay spent a little time at the herbarium but mostly spent time with her friends Jenny and Frank and their daughter Allison. They visited the St. Louis Zoo and walked through the Garden, and Lindsay has lots of great photos that I'm trying to convince her to share on this blog (any help would be appreciated!).

While in the herbarium, Dana looked at the Zizia-Thaspium complex (and took care of Eli), Justin looked at a few sedges (Carex) and a variety of mosses (and took care of Eli), Tony spent a lot of time on rushes (Juncus), and I looked at a variety of groups, including a few asters (Symphyotrichum/Aster), sunflowers (Helianthus), mountain mints (Pycnanthemum), and sedges (Carex). One of the highlights was Tony coming across a specimen of roundhead rush (Juncus validus), collected years ago in Butler County, Missouri, that was incorrectly identified and filed away as whiteroot rush (Juncus brachycarpus). Without Tony's sharp eye, this rare rush would still be unknown from Butler County!

Special thanks to George and Kay Yatskievych and Mary McNamara for setting us up with excellent accomodations and workspace at the Garden.

On Friday afternoon, we left the Garden and drove to Salem, Missouri to spend the weekend with Justin, Dana, and Eli. We took a few botanizing trips, and I'll share results in future posts here and at Get Your Botany On!. On the way to Salem, we stopped to eat at a great barbeque restaurant in Cuba, Missouri...

Happy spring!

08 March 2009

You Learn Something New Every Day

Lately, I have tossed around the idea of starting a notebook simply to record things that I learn on a daily basis... just simple facts... little things that I hear or read. I figure that if I don't write these things down, I won't remember them. And as of late, I think I have learned something new almost every day. I had a few examples, but believe it or not, I don't remember what they were!

Except this one. While at the Sebert Property in LaPorte County yesterday, I was walking through an area of scattered Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and pin oak (Quercus palustris) and looking at pine cones on the ground when I noticed a cone that looked a little different. Then I realized that it wasn't a cone at all, but instead was a frog. This frog must have been pretty cold. He didn't move much at all, even when I picked him up.
Knowing all of the frog and toad species that are known from the Chicago Region, I was a little surprised that I really wasn't sure what kind of frog this was. It was dark gray, nearly black, approximately 1 1/2 inches long, and was warty in texture. I picked up the little guy and looked at his belly, and I noticed a bright yellow wash from the groin to the feet.
I've never seen a frog or toad like this. I know that the Pickerel Frog (Rana palustris) has a bright yellow-orange groin, but this sure isn't a Pickerel Frog. I decided to take several photos and try to figure it out when I got home.
Upon returning home, I pulled out Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana by the late Sherman Minton, and I flipped through the pages. The closest picture I could find to the frog I had found was an Eastern Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor). I decided to read the description to see how my frog compared. From Minton (2001):
Gray Treefrogs
Hyla versicolor LeConte and Hyla chrysoscelis Cope
Identification: Frogs with enlarged discs at the tips of their toes and of highly variable color but with a bright yellow wash on the posterior and lower thighs and a light spot below the eye. Body length of adult frog is approximately 1 1/2 inches. The two species can be distinguished by voice, blood cell size, and chromosome count.

Description: Head wider than long, snout short and blunt; eye of moderate size with horizontally elliptical pupil.... There is usually a dark band from the snout through the eye to the shoulder adn a dark mid-dorsal spot that may cover most of the back or be broken into several spots. A rhomboidal silvery to light green spot below the eye is consistently present.... posterior surface of thighs and underside of tibiae with dark reticulum covered by chrome yellow to orange wash; belly white.
Well who knew? I had seen lots of color and texture variation in Eastern Gray Treefrogs in the past (see my previous post on the frogs and toads of northern Indiana here), but I had never noticed that bright yellow area on the ventral side, or the silvery spot under the eye, or the dark stripe from the snout through the eye to the shoulder. But this individual fits this description very well, and is indead an Eastern Gray Treefrog.

Now that I've written about these characteristics of gray treefrogs, I will probably remember them. But those facts that were new to me in the past that I haven't recorded may be gone from my ever-worsening memory until I hear them again. And this time, I think I will write them down.

Change You Can Believe In

No... nothing political. The change I'm referring to here is change that happens in the Midwest every year around early March. This change is the dreary winter waking and rubbing the crust off its eyes as we transition into the budding spring that is full of life. I had seen a few signs of this transition in late February (the return of a few Red-winged Blackbirds, early insects crawling around, increasing hours of daylight, etc.). But with the 60+ degree temperatures this weekend, numerous drastic changes were evident, making me think that we've almost turned the corner. Below are seven signs of spring that I have noted in the past few days.
  1. On Friday, while in a meeting in my office, I was distracted by the obnoxious but welcomed "kill-dee... kill-dee..." song of the Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus), our earliest arriving shorebird; I observed several Killdeer while driving yesterday between North Liberty and LaPorte, Indiana.
  2. Saturday and Sunday, the reverberating "kar-r-r-r-o-o-o" of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) could be heard nearly wherever you were. These huge birds were present in many of the corn fields I drove past, and I even observed the flamboyant mating dance while I passed at 55 mph. Sandhill Cranes can also be seen soaring overhead throughout northern Indiana this time of year.
  3. While we have been seeing Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoenicius), Rusty Blackbirds (Euphagus carolensis), and Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula) since early February, they have seemingly exponentially multiplied in the past week. It is rare to be outside and not see Red-winged Blackbird males scouting out territories right now, though I don't think the majority of female Red-winged Blackbirds have made their arrival yet.
  4. Friday and Saturday afternoons, the "c-r-r-r-r-r-r-e-e-e-e-e-e-k" calls of Western Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) echoed through wetlands and surrounding uplands. What a welcome and beautiful call!
  5. In LaPorte County on Saturday, I came across a very cold and nearly immobile Eastern Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor) on the ground. I had never seen a representative of this species this early in the year.
  6. The silver maples (Acer saccharinum) in our yard have begun to bloom. Most people I talk to who aren't botanists are surprised that trees even have flowers. If you look closely this time of year, you will see the spreading yellow stamens and reddish pistils of these small clusters of flowers.
  7. Finally, yesterday at Kankakee Fen northwest of North Liberty, I saw skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) in bloom. This is our earliest blooming wildflower in this part of the world, as the plant is capable of producing heat (a process called thermogenesis) that allows it to thaw surrounding frozen ground and push its floral structures through to the surface, even if snow still covers the surrounding landscape. The flowers of this species are located on a spadix that is hidden within a splotchy maroon- or green-colored spathe. If you're wondering why this plant is called skunk cabbage, try breaking a spathe or a leaf (which appears later in the year, as the flowers wither away). Your nose will quickly give you the answer. This "foetid" odor benefits the plant by attracting pollinators such as flies and bees.

The extended weather forecast shows colder temperatures and the potential for snow later this week... but, not to fear... spring will undoubtedly be here soon. During the unchartered and difficult times currently facing our nation and the world, no one yet knows if we will truly see the change promised us by our new leader. However, I can guarantee that if you look around outside, you will see the blossoming of a new and uplifting season.

04 March 2009

Do Not Try This At Home

My feet hurt! Today was the annual refresher course at the Indiana Dunes for wildland firefighters. As part of the refresher each year, those who are interested in obtaining or maintaining a Red Card (the qualification necessary to fight fire with a federal agency or on federal land) must take the pack test. This involves walking three miles with 45 pounds on your back in 45 minutes. While some people specifically train for this event, I've never really had the motivation to do so. I like to test my baseline physical fitness by not training in any way... instead just going out there and doing the best I can on that day. Maybe someday this will catch up with me, but for now, I'm still able to do this. I passed by completing the hike in 42:03... and only two blisters to show for it!
While I have never "fought" fire, part of my job involves participating in prescribed burns. Prior to the 1900s, fire was an integral part of maintaining many of our natural landscapes. Some fires occurred naturally as a result of lightening strikes; others were set by Native Americans to keep the land open so that they could see potential invaders, as well as to improve wildlife (= food) habitat.
With the turn of the century came the severe suppression of fire from the landscape. This has led to big changes in the vegetation composition of our natural systems. Without fire, shrubs and trees encroach on prairies; savannas become forests; fire-tolerant oak-hickory forests transition into climax beech-maple communities. In addition, organic material has accumulated into a dense ground layer, in turn leading to larger, more destructive fires when they do occur.
A realization that fire is a beneficial and natural aspect of our natural history has initiated the activity of prescribed burning in many natural areas and landscape restorations. Fire helps by promoting germination of plant species that are adapted to fire, as well as keeping out invading woody species that are fire intolerant. Burning with a good plan also reduces the organic matter that can lead to catastrophic wildfires.
Although burning is just a small part of my job, it has to be one of the most exciting aspects of my work. Translated: fire is just cool.

01 March 2009

100 Yard Birds (And Counting)!

Lindsay and I obtained possession of our 10 acre property and house across the street from a state park on April 30, 2007. We immediately began keeping a yard list of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and spiders. On our yard list, we include any species that is on or can be seen or heard from anywhere on our property. This morning, we reached a milestone; 100 species of yard birds!

I had just poured a bowl of cereal and decided to look at our yard list to find out on what date we started seeing certain birds migrating through last year. Our yard list is kept on a small table under the window in the front of the house, where our feeders are located. I took a quick glance around the base of our platform feeder and immediately saw the raspberry colors of a male Purple Finch! Knowing that this was yard bird #100, I ran upstairs to wake Lindsay up so that she could join me in the thrill of reaching this milestone. She followed me back downstairs and we were able to watch this little finch for a few minutes, and compare it to a male House Finch that also showed up at our feeders.

Below is a complete list of our yard birds to date, in order by date observed. The dates in parentheses are the dates we initially saw or heard a given species. We've also added notes on which species were seen or heard on our property (with notes on nesting) versus those observed from our property. If you are interested in seeing pictures or paintings of any of these species, click on one of the links under the Bird Website Essentials heading to the right and search for the species of interest.
  1. Barn Swallow (5/8/2007) - nesting on property, including on front porch
  2. Field Sparrow (5/8/2007) - on property, likely nesting
  3. Song Sparrow (5/8/2007) - on property, likely nesting
  4. Red-winged Blackbird (5/8/2007) - on property, likely nesting
  5. Yellow Warbler (5/8/2007) - on property, likely nesting
  6. Common Yellowthroat (5/8/2007) - on property, likely nesting
  7. White-throated Sparrow (5/8/2007) - on property
  8. American Robin (5/8/2007) - on property
  9. Northern Cardinal (5/8/2007) - on property
  10. Ring-necked Pheasant (5/8/2007) - heard from property
  11. Mourning Dove (5/8/2007) - on property
  12. Canada Goose (5/8/2007) - flyover; also in wetland at park seen from property
  13. Mallard (5/8/2007) - on property in small pond
  14. House Wren (5/9/2007) - nesting on property
  15. Great Blue Heron (5/9/2007) - on property around small pond
  16. Gray Catbird (5/9/2007) - on property
  17. Eastern Bluebird (5/9/2007) - on property
  18. American Goldfinch (5/9/2007) - on property
  19. American Crow (5/9/2007) - on property
  20. Killdeer (5/9/2007) - flyover
  21. Red-bellied Woodpecker (5/9/2007) - on property
  22. European Starling (5/9/2007) - nesting on property
  23. Chipping Sparrow (5/9/2007) - on property, likely nesting
  24. Double-crested Cormorant (5/9/2007) - seen from property flying over park
  25. House Sparrow (5/9/2007) - on property, likely nesting
  26. House Finch (5/9/2007) - on property
  27. Red-tailed Hawk (5/10-13/2007) - on property
  28. Eastern Phoebe (5/10-13/2007) - on property, maybe nesting
  29. Osprey (5/10-13/2007) - flyover
  30. Warbling Vireo (5/10-13/2007) - heard from property
  31. Turkey Vulture (5/10-13/2007) - flyover
  32. Willow Flycatcher (5/18/2007) - on property, maybe nesting
  33. Blue Jay (5/18/2007) - on property
  34. Sandhill Crane (5/18/2007) - flyover
  35. Eastern Wood-Pewee (5/18/2007) - heard from property
  36. Cedar Waxwing (5/18/2007) - on property
  37. Rock Pigeon (5/18/2007) - nesting on property
  38. Brown-headed Cowbird (5/18/2007) - on property
  39. Tennessee Warbler (5/21/2007) - heard from property
  40. Yellow-breasted Chat (5/24/2007) - on property
  41. Ruby-throated Hummingbird (5/24/2007) - on property
  42. Great Egret (5/27/2007) - seen from property in wetland at park
  43. Red-eyed Vireo (5/27/2007) - heard from property
  44. Baltimore Oriole (5/28/2007) - on property, maybe nesting
  45. Common Grackle (5/28/2007) - on property
  46. Indigo Bunting (5/28/2007) - on property
  47. Yellow-billed Cuckoo (5/28/2007) - on property
  48. Downy Woodpecker (5/28/2007) - on property
  49. Green Heron (6/2/2007) - on property, maybe nesting around pond
  50. Black-billed Cuckoo (6/2/2007) - on property
  51. White-eyed Vireo (6/2/2007) - on property
  52. Tufted Titmouse (6/2/2007) - on property
  53. Yellow-throated Vireo (6/10/2007) - heard from property
  54. Wood Duck (6/11/2007) - on property around pond
  55. Red-headed Woodpecker (6/11/2007) - seen from property in wetland at park
  56. Tree Swallow (6/11/2007) - seen from property in wetland at park
  57. White-breasted Nuthatch (6/11/2007) - on property
  58. Wood Thrush (6/11/2007) - heard from property
  59. Brown Thrasher (6/15/2007) - on property
  60. Eastern Kingbird (6/15/2007) - on property
  61. Wild Turkey (6/17/2007) - heard from property
  62. Cooper's Hawk (8/19/2007) - on property
  63. Eastern Screech Owl (8/28/2007) - on property
  64. Red-breasted Nuthatch (9/9/2007) - on property
  65. Northern Flicker (10/7/2007) - on property
  66. Yellow-rumped Warbler (10/14/2007) - on property
  67. White-crowned Sparrow (10/14/2007) - on property
  68. Dark-eyed Junco (10/14/2007) - on property
  69. Mute Swan (10/23/2007) - seen from property in wetland at park
  70. Black-capped Chickadee (10/24/2007) - on property
  71. Ring-necked Duck (10/28/2007) - seen from property in wetland at park
  72. American Tree Sparrow (11/14/2007) - on property
  73. Northern Shoveler (11/17/2007) - seen from property in wetland at park
  74. Bufflehead (11/17/2007) - seen from property in wetland at park
  75. Red-shouldered Hawk (11/17/2007) - heard from property
  76. Pine Siskin (11/18/2007) - on property
  77. Common Redpoll (11/18/2007) - on property
  78. Gadwall (11/24/2007) - seen from property in wetland at park
  79. American Coot (11/24/2007) - seen from property in wetland at park
  80. American Wigeon (11/24/2007) - seen from property in wetland at park
  81. Northern Shrike (11/24/2007) - on property
  82. Hairy Woodpecker (11/25/2007) - on property
  83. Northern Harrier (12/8/2007) - seen from property
  84. Rough-legged Hawk (12/23/2007) - on property
  85. Great Horned Owl (1/28/2008) - heard from property
  86. American Kestrel (2/9/2008) - on property
  87. American Woodcock (3/13/2008) - on property, maybe nesting
  88. Ring-billed Gull (3/13/2008) - flyover
  89. Hooded Merganser (3/16/2008) - seen from property in wetland at park
  90. Pied-billed Grebe (4/1/2008) - seen from property in wetland at park
  91. Rusty Blackbird (4/8/2008) - on property
  92. Eastern Towhee (4/13/2008) - on property
  93. Golden-crowned Kinglet (4/15/2008) - on property
  94. Lesser Scaup (4/15/2008) - seen from property in wetland at park
  95. Rose-breasted Grosbeak (4/30/2008) - on property
  96. Orchard Oriole (5/7/2008) - on property, maybe nesting
  97. Barred Owl (10/10/2008) - heard from property
  98. Belted Kingfisher (11/6/2008) - on property around pond
  99. Snow Bunting (12/21/2008) - on property
  100. Purple Finch (3/1/2008) - on property